La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West France and England in North America
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Born into the topmost ranks of Bostonian society, Parkman was the son of a prominent Unitarian minister who set him on the conventional path to Harvard Class of , LL. While still a boy, Parkman had become fascinated with nature. He later served a year as professor of horticulture at Harvard.
During two summer vacations from college, Parkman and Harvard friends headed for the deep woods of northern New Hampshire and western Maine, camping, canoeing, bushwhacking, hunting, and living among woodsmen and Indians.
In that near-wilderness, Parkman was not simply a tourist. As a college sophomore, he had formed a grand ambition: to write the history of the year contest between France and England for dominance in North America, from the earliest voyages of Cartier and Champlain to the final defeat of the French at the Battle of Quebec in This work inspired and directed his entire life. Needing firsthand knowledge of Indians and their lives, hardly to be had in the East any longer, the year-old, and a cousin, took off in April for the West, following pioneer routes across the Great Plains in a journey of six months and about 2, miles.
The climax of the trip was the roughly three-week period near Laramie, Wyoming, where Parkman lived, traveled, and hunted with a band of Oglala Sioux, people of a toughness, hardihood, and stoicism totally unexampled in his patrician milieu. On returning to that milieu, Parkman found himself in need of all the toughness and stoicism he could muster. His health had long been uncertain. He suffered from insomnia and poor digestion, his eyesight sometimes failed for months on end, and an arthritic knee often confined him to a wheelchair.
Back in Boston, he broke down completely. At the village, the Seneca vehemently attempted to dissuade the party from proceeding into the lands of their enemies, the Algonquins, telling of the dire fate awaiting them. The necessity of securing guides for the further part of the journey, and the obstinacy of the Seneca to provide them, delayed the expedition a month. A fortuitous capture by the Indians in the lands to the south of a Dutchman who spoke Iroquois well but French ill, and was to be burned at the stake for transgressions unknown, provided an opportunity to obtain a guide.
The Dutchman's freedom was purchased by the party in exchange for wampum. While at the Indian village in Sept. At this juncture, he parted from his company and the narrative of the Jesuits, who continued on to upper Lake Erie. The missionaries continued on to the upper lakes, to the land of the Potawatomies. Beyond that, the factual record of La Salle's first expedition ends, and what prevails is obscurity and fabrication.
It is likely that he spent the winter in Ville Marie. That would be miles as the crow flies from the Falls of the Ohio, the point supposed by some that he reached on the Ohio River. La Salle's own journal of the expedition was lost in A letter from Madeleine Cavelier, his now elderly niece, written in , commenting on the journal of La Salle in her possession may also shed some light on the issue. La Salle himself never claimed to have discovered the Ohio River.
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In those days, maps as well as descriptions were based part on observation and part on hearsay, of necessity. This confounded courses, mouths and confluences among the rivers. These included segments of those he'd actually traversed, which were earlier the Illinois and Kankakee, St.
He also correctly described the Missouri, though it was hearsay - he'd never been on it. Margry was a French archivist and partisan who had private access to the French archives. He came to be the agent of the American historian Francis Parkman. Margry's work, a massive 9 volumes, encompassed an assemblage of documents some previously published, but many not.
France and England in North America, Part III: La Salle, Discovery of The Great - Free Ebook
In it, he sometimes published a reproduction of the whole document, and sometimes only an extract, or summary, not distinguishing the one from the other. He also used in some cases one or another copies of original documents previously edited, extracted or altered by others, without specifying which transcriptions were original, and which were copies, or whether the copy was dated earlier or later. Reproductions were scattered in fragments across chapters, so that it was impossible to ascertain the integrity of the document from its fragments.
Chapter headings were oblique and sensational, so as to obfuscate the content therein. English and American scholars were immediately skeptical of the work, since full and faithful publication of some of the original documents had previously existed. If La Salle is excused from discovering the two great rivers of the midwest, history does not leave a void.
Anthony on the upper Mississippi in spring, ,  in advance of La Salle's own excursion in early While the groups met and exchanged gifts, Frontenac's men, led by La Salle, hastily constructed a rough wooden palisade on a point of land by a shallow, sheltered bay. The purpose of Fort Frontenac was to control the lucrative fur trade in the Great Lakes Basin to the west. The fort was also meant to be a bulwark against the English and Dutch, who were competing with the French for control of the fur trade. Thanks to his powerful protector, the discoverer managed, during a voyage to France in —75, to secure for himself the grant of Fort Cataraqui and acquired letters of nobility for himself and his descendants.
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He returned and rebuilt Frontenac in stone. An Ontario Heritage Trust plaque describes La Salle at Cataraqui as "[a] major figure in the expansion of the French fur trade into the Lake Ontario region, Using the fort as a base, he undertook expeditions to the west and southwest in the interest of developing a vast fur-trading empire. There they loaded supplies from Fort Frontenac into smaller boats canoes or bateaux , so they could continue up the shallow and swiftly flowing lower Niagara River to what is now the location of Lewiston, New York.
There the Iroquois had a well-established portage route which bypassed the rapids and the cataract later known as Niagara Falls. The first ship built by La Salle, called the Frontenac , a ton single-decked brigantine or barque was lost in Lake Ontario, on January 8, She was launched on August 7, Le Griffon left for Niagara with a load of furs, but was never seen again. He continued with his men in canoes down the western shore of Lake Michigan , rounding the southern end to the mouth of the Miami River now St.
Joseph River , where they built a stockade in January They called it Fort Miami now known as St. Joseph, Michigan. There they waited for Tonti and his party, who had crossed the Lower Michigan peninsula on foot.
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Tonti arrived on November 20; on December 3, the entire party set off up the St. Joseph, which they followed until they had to take a portage at present-day South Bend, Indiana. They crossed to the Kankakee River and followed it to the Illinois River. La Salle set off on foot for Fort Frontenac for supplies.
While he was gone, the soldiers at Ft. Crevecoeur, led by Martin Chartier , mutinied , destroyed the fort, and exiled Tonti, whom he had left in charge. Ignace, Michigan. La Salle reassembled a party for another major expedition. Additional material, including maps, photos and other documents supporting "Count Frontenac and New France Under Louis XIV," as well as substantial additional materials related to North America in the colonial period, are hyperlinked to FrancisParkman.
Britain and France vied aggressively with one another for fifty years before the French and Indian War of the s settled the issue once and for all France lost. The story of these conflicts is masterfully told by America's greatest historian, Francis Parkman. In addition to biographical sketches of prominent figures, the book covers broad issues of the first half of the eighteenth, such as: royal successions and influence, French schemes of conquest in America, colonial trade and politics, piracy, church politics, and Indian issues.
When the fighting begins, it is savage, brutal, and graphic. This period was the horrific attack at Deerfield The Redeemed Captive , and scores of Indian raids along the British frontier. In response, the British annexed Acadia Nova Scotia and exiled most of the French habitants they now call themselves 'Cajuns. Things went from bad to worse, resulting in a string of escalating military operations: Lovewell's fight, the Outagamie War, and the siege and capitulation of the impregnable Louisbourg fortress. Additional material, including maps, photos and other documents supporting "A Half-Century of Conflict" are at FrancisParkman.
Quite possibly the greatest war story ever told. Too few Americans are familiar with the French and Indian War, and how close France came to winning it.
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After three generations of conflict between French and British settlers of North America, the war started by George Washington in the wilds of Virginia ended in a massive musket volley outside the walls of the fortress city of Quebec. Additional material, including maps, photos and other documents supporting "Montcalm and Wolfe," as well as substantial additional materials related to North America in the colonial period, are hyperlinked to FrancisParkman. A masterpiece of historical narrative, The Conspiracy of Pontiac has gripped readers worldwide for more than five generations.