Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards (Industrial Electronics)
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The main difference between wired and wireless MAC protocols generally stems from the ability to detect collisions on the medium while sending e. Since this is not possible over the wireless medium, quality of service QoS analysis can be leveraged in IWSNs to measure packet loss, bandwidth, and delay.
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Improvements over these standards are proposed that use a time-synchronized mesh network with short time slots where the device and overarching network operations are synchronized . Table 1 : Dimensions of Security. As shown in Table 1, there are several major aspects to security including data confidentiality, integrity, availability, freshness, and authenticity . Strengthening all these aspects of security protect an IWSN against both passive e. Figure 3 : Depiction of the various factions of Industrial WSN end users according to wireless systems standards and strategies .
However, in the past two years, ISA This topology boasts up to 1 0-year battery-powered wireless sensors with communication links up to 20 miles. While this technology may not be best-suited for secure, timesensitive and high reliability applications, it ranks highly in ease of use and scalability. Traditional wired industrial architectures do experience a greater level of determinism and a level of scalability with industrial Ethernet. Still, IWSNs surpass any wired network in modularity, ease of use, and cost-effectiveness.
Gungor and G. Dengchang, A. Zhulin, and X. Vracar, A. Prijic, D. Nesic, S. Devic, and Z. Antolin, N.
Medrano, B. Calvo, and P. Lei, Y. Kuang, X. Shen, K. Yang, J.
V. Çağrı GÜNGÖR, Professor
Qiao and Z. Tran, Eushiuan. Carnegie Mellon University, Christmann, Dennis. University of Kaiserslautern, IEEE Trans. Industrial Informatics, 3 2 , Sen, S. Lee, B. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE Moreover, the nature of the physical phenomenon constitutes the temporal correlation between each consecutive observation of the sensor node.
Thus, capacity and delay attainable at each link are location dependent and vary continuously, making QoS provisioning a challenging task. Moreover, the lack of predetermined network infrastructure necessitates the IWSNs to establish connections and maintain network connectivity autonomously. Due the diversity of the industrial applications, they are classified into three categories and six classes by industrial market, as presented in Table 1.
Most safety functions are performed through dedicated wired networks to limit both failure and vulnerability to external events or attack. Examples are safety interlock, emergency shutdown, and fire control. Example is equipment selection.
Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards [Book News]
Latency for this class of action is human scale, measured in seconds to minutes. Latency for this class of information is typically low, measured in minutes or even hours. Some, like sequence of events, require high reliability; others, like reports of slowly-changing information of low economic value, do not need to be so reliable since loss of a few consecutive samples may be unimportant. A recent study [ 12 ], presented by the International Society of Automation [ 6 ], identified that industrial users are interested in deploying wireless networks for the less critical applications such as the monitoring classes 4 and 5, where determinism is not required and higher latencies can be tolerated.
In fact, when considering deploying a wireless sensor network in a factory installation, So, our main focus in this work is on the monitoring applications, where the successful delivery of data is of a paramount interest and the acceptable delays for the applications are in the order of seconds to minutes. Although the network topology is difficult to generalize in some kind of applications, the appropriate network topology suggested for the industrial monitoring applications is the mesh topology or a hybrid of the star and the mesh topology [ 7 ].
According to the networking working group NWG of the internet engineering task force IETF [ 5 ], typical industrial scenarios may have multiple sinks with the number of sinks being far smaller than the total number of nodes. The network may be composed of 10 to nodes and usually the maximum number of hops to reach the sink from any source is 20 hops.
It is assumed that the nodes themselves will provide routing capability for the network. In addition, they should be small and easily deployed with reduced battery and memory capacity.
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They should be able to operate in a wide range of environmental conditions found in industrial scenarios. Also, it is generally expected that nodes with routing capabilities will be stationary as well as the sinks that will be connected to the backbone. In this part, we highlight some of the issues that must be taken into consideration when designing routing protocols for industrial monitoring applications of wireless sensor networks, from the viewpoint of the ISA This includes power and memory, as well as constraints placed on the device by the user, such as battery life, vi distribute sufficient information about the link failures to enable traffic to be routed such that all service requirements especially latency continue to be met, vii be easy to deploy and manage, viii limit the risk incurred by one node being compromised, for instance by proposing a noncongruent path for a given route and balancing the traffic across the network.
It must be noted that security considerations are outside of the scope of our work. The next section presents the state of the art of the exiting routing protocols for the industrial monitoring applications of Wireless Sensor Networks. We present here the exiting routing protocols in the industrial wireless sensor networks, especially routing protocols for the monitoring applications, where the successful delivery of data is of a paramount interest and the acceptable delays for the applications are in the order of seconds to minutes.
We present their limitations and weaknesses according to the industrial routing requirements presented in Section 2.
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Heo et al. It is a location-based proactive routing protocol that aims to maintain an ongoing routing table. In EARQ, a node estimates the energy cost, the delay and the reliability of a path toward the sink node, based only on the information from neighboring nodes. It selects a path that expends less energy among paths that deliver a packet in time.
Sometimes, it selects a path that expends more energy than the optimal path, because the path is randomly selected, according to a probability. The deadline, which is the maximum tolerable packet delay, is estimated based on the density of the sensor nodes and the radio range. In addition, EARQ sends a redundant packet via an alternate path if the reliability of a path is less than a predefined value. However, the number of packets in the network increases and it can be congestion or increased energy expenditure. This protocol requires global accurate positioning information to perform the routing tasks and to calculate some of the route selection metrics, which cannot be reliably achieved in indoor scenarios.
The location information can be obtained by GPS or localization protocols for estimating the location of a node.
Design of Wireless Sensors for IoT with Energy Storage and Communication Channel Heterogeneity
This protocol does not consider the inherent properties of WSNs such as the buffer size limitation of the sensor nodes. Wang et al.
The aim of this protocol is to provide reliability and to meet the special requirement of deterministic scheduling for industrial applications. Moreover, the protocol has the advantages of energy saving and the ability of packets aggregation. The authors developed an improved routing mechanism with feedback and redundancy and proposed a deterministic routing algorithm for both cluster and mesh networks. The algorithm supports deterministic schedule, redundancy, and VCR virtual communication relations hip for aggregation.